SSL means Secure Sockets Layer. It is a technology that the
communications between the user and the web server go through in an encrypted
format. It helps to prevent hacking from outside. If you see a padlock sign
near the URL, it means that it is secure
To enable SSL on a website, we need to get an SSL Certificate that identifies
the site and installs it on the server. it is a digital signature that assures
the client that they are communicating with the intended site.
Certificate Authorities (CA)
SSL certificates need to be issued by a Certificate Authority (CA). A
Certificate Authority is an organization that checks the validity of the domain
by verifying the submitted records and ensure that the cert is issued for the
actual domain. In other words, it eliminates the possibility of fake
certificates and ensuring the security of the total process.
Certificate Signing Request (CSR)
A CSR or Certificate Signing request is a block of encrypted text that is
generated on the server where the certificate will be used on. It will have
information like the organization name, domain name, and country. I will also
have the public key. The private key must be kept with us and not shared.
Root Certificates (CA bundle)
When a browser gets an SSL certificate; it goes on to check it to make sure
that the certificate is valid and trusted.
In the initial session, the browser will
connect to the server, and some information is given to the server which will
be non-confidential. The server will reply with the answers. The server’s SSL
certificate and the public key will also be shared with the answer. The browser
will check whether the certificate is valid or not. If it is valid, it will
generate a secret key and encrypt it using the public key shared and send it
back to the server. The server will send a final message to acknowledge the
secret key and this will confirm that the encryption will be using this secret
key, and a padlock will be visible to the users in the browser near the URL.
Thus, the handshake is completed.
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